Inflammation of the gums or gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingiva (gums). It occurs as a consequence of poor oral hygiene and the action of bacteria. If left untreated, it progresses to periodontal disease. Some of the symptoms of gingivitis are red and swollen gingiva, bleeding during or after brushing.

Gingivectomy and gingivoplasty are the removal of excess gingiva and reshaping to reduce gingival pockets and allow its proper hygiene.


The main factor in the formation is plaque. Plaque is a colorless sticky mass that consists of a large number of bacteria that are the main cause of gingivitis, as well as other diseases of the tooth and its supporting apparatus. Poor oral hygiene leads to excessive accumulation of plaque on the teeth and inflammation of the gums.

Gingivitis can be caused by:

  • hormonal changes such as those during puberty, breastfeeding, menopause, which make the gums more sensitive
  • use of certain medications such as various antiepileptics
  • bad habits, such as smoking, have a negative impact

The problem with gingivitis is that it can progress without any discomfort or with very few obvious symptoms. There are certain warning signs that indicate the disease. Bleeding may occur during or after brushing, red and swollen gums, bad breath or a taste in the mouth.

Even if these symptoms do not exist, the patient may still have some form of gingivitis. Therefore, regular controls at the dentist are recommended.

In the initial phase, bacteria and dental plaque accumulate, which causes the gums to become inflamed and bleed slightly during brushing. At this stage, although the gingiva is irritated, the teeth are still tightly in the bone. There is no irreversible damage to bone or other tissues.

If the gingivitis is not treated, during the time it turns into periodontal disease. In people who suffer from periodontal disease, at the beginning there is a separation of the gingiva and bone from the tooth and the formation of a pocket. Bacteria and food debris accumulate in these small spaces and are difficult to remove.

The toxins produced by the bacteria destroy the bone around the tooth, the cementum and the periodontal ligament (the connective tissue that holds the tooth in the bone). If you do not react, the disease progresses and eventually tooth loss.

In order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, it is primarily recommended adequate oral hygiene, which includes brushing teeth in the morning and evening, as well as the use of floss. You can also use one of the mouthwashes. Even if you regularly perform oral hygiene, some deposits are extremely difficult to remove and they turn into tartar. In order to remove it, controls at the dentist every 4 to 6 months are recommended.

Treatment of gingivitis begins with proper oral hygiene and the use of mouthwashes. It is necessary for the patient to contact the dentist in order to remove hard and soft deposits from those areas that are not accessible to the patient for cleaning. In certain situations, the dentist may prescribe antibiotics.