What causes periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease can start off unnoticed, causing gum bleeding and can appear in young people. The dangerous part is that it doesn’t start to hurt until it gets complicated. Periodontal disease can cause dental plaque which is almost entirely (80%) made from bacteria and microorganisms. Dental plaque is a colorless, see through, slimy mass that settles down on your teeth. And it cannot be removed by regular brushing. In case of bad oral hygiene, mineral salts are further settled onto the dental plaque. Mineralization occurs and leads to dental tartar. Tartar is visible and it’s settled near the edge of gingiva.
It can cause gum inflammation in 2 ways:
- By making it harder to keep proper oral hygiene
- By mechanically pressing down onto the gums and leading to blood flow disorders. Which is the main cause of red and swollen gums.
In case this hard sediment (tartar) is covered by gingiva, and cannot be seen by the naked eye, it is called subgingival calculus. It’s usually found in periodontal pockets.
In case gingivitis (the inflammation of gingiva) isn’t treated, the inflammation can spread and periodontium can deteriorate. Periodontal pockets can form – a space between the root and the inflamed gums. In this stage the teeth become overly sensitive to thermic, mechanical and other irritants. During later stages the teeth start to become loose and fall out.