Gum disease or gingivitis is the inflammation of part of the gum or gingiva. It occurs as a result of dental plaque bacteria toxins and tooth calculus as the supporting factor. If left untreated, it leads to periodontitis.
Gum disease occurs as a result of poor, irregular or improper oral hygiene. Food particles and tooth calculus buildup in the sulcus around the tooth, which is the natural space between the gums and the neck of the tooth (the part of the tooth next to the gums). Such an environment is ideal for bacteria buildup, which release their toxins and cause gingivitis.

The best therapy for gingivitis is prevention. Gingivitis prevention entails educating patients about proper oral hygiene maintenance, regular visits to the dentist every four months to remove dental calculus and polish teeth, as well as regular and proper oral hygiene maintenance kept up by the patient.

If gum inflammation occurs, it is treated by various methods in the domain of periodontics. It can be treated by simply removing the tooth calculus, by prescribing antibiotics or by conducting various surgical interventions in the domain of periodontics.


Periodontitis is a disease of the tissue surrounding and supporting the teeth, keeping them in the jaw bone and buffering the chewing forces they are exposed to.

The tissue that supports teeth is called the periodontium. To explain simply, the tooth is held in the jaw bone and the gingiva is located over the jaw bone and a very small part of the tooth. There are also other tissues that are subject to expert consideration and are not of interest to patients. The narrow space between the gums and the neck of the tooth is barely 0.5 to 1 mm wide and is called the sulcus. It is a naturally present space that can be reached by toothbrush bristles and cleaned.

In the case of gum inflammation, if left untreated, the toxins in bacteria start to destroy the bone around the tooth and it starts to recede. That is how periodontal pockets appear. Toothbrush bristles cannot reach such pockets and it becomes impossible to maintain normal hygiene. As a result, food remains accumulate in these pockets and toxins from bacteria allow the disease to progress further.


Periodontitis is diagnosed based on a clinical examination, including probing the periodontal pockets, and based on radiographic imaging of the teeth. At the examination, the depth and type of periodontal pockets is determined and an adequate therapy is recommended.

Periodontitis is usually discovered during a routine panoramic x-ray, when symptoms occur or when teeth begin to loosen.


There are different types of periodontitis, although most are caused by dental plaque, i.e. bacteria that exude toxins. Dental plaque accumulates due to inadequate oral hygiene.

Tooth calculus is the accessing factor in the appearance of periodontitis, its structure, which under a microscope resembles caves, is ideal for food deposits and bacteria growth.

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